sábado, 7 de maio de 2011

Cloud computing.



Cloud computing refers to the provision of computational resources on demand via a computer network. Because the cloud is an underlying delivery mechanism, cloud based applications and services may support any type of software application or service in use today. Before the advent of computer networks, both data and software were stored and processed on or near the computer. The development of Local Area Networks LAN allowed for a tiered architecture in which multiple CPUs and storage devices may be organized to increase the performance of the entire system. LANs were widely deployed in corporate environments in the 1990's, and are notable for vendor specific connectivity limitations. These limitations gave rise to the marketing term "Islands of Information" which was widely used within the computing industry. The widespread implementation of the TCP/IP protocol stack and the subsequent popularization of the web has lead to multi-vendor networks that are no longer limited by company walls.
Cloud computing fundamentally allows for a functional separation between the resources used and the user's computer. The computing resources may or may not reside outside the local network, for example in an internet connected datacenter. What is important to the individual user is that they 'simply work'. This separation between the resources used and the user's computer also has allowed for the development of new business models. All of the development and maintenance tasks involved in provisioning the application are performed by the service provider. The user's computer may contain very little software or data (perhaps a minimal operating system and web browser only), serving as little more than a display terminal for processes occurring on a network of computers far away. Consumers now routinely use data intensive applications driven by cloud technology which were previously unavailable due to cost and deployment complexity. In many companies employees and company departments are bringing a flood of consumer technology into the workplace and this raises legal compliance and security concerns for the corporation.
A common shorthand for a provided cloud computing service (or even an aggregation of all existing cloud services) is "The Cloud". The most common analogy to explain cloud computing is that of public utilities such as electricity, gas, and water. Just as centralized and standardized utilities free individuals from the difficulties of generating electricity or pumping water, cloud computing frees users from certain hardware and software installation and maintenance tasks through the use of simpler hardware that accesses a vast network of computing resources (processors, hard drives, etc.). The sharing of resources reduces the cost to individuals.
The phrase “cloud computing” originated from the cloud symbol that is usually used by flow charts and diagrams to symbolize the internet. The principle behind the cloud is that any computer connected to the internet is connected to the same pool of computing power, applications, and files. Users can store and access personal files such as music, pictures, videos, and bookmarks or play games or use productivity applications on a remote server rather than physically carrying around a storage medium such as a DVD or thumb drive. Almost all users of the internet may be using a form of cloud computing though few realize it. Those who use web-based email such as Gmail, Hotmail, Yahoo, a Company owned email, or even an e-mail client program such as Outlook, Evolution, Mozilla Thunderbird or Entourage are making use of cloud email servers. Hence, desktop applications which connect to cloud email would be considered cloud applications.
Cloud computing utilizes the network as a means to connect user end point devices (end points) to resources that are centralized in a data center. The data center may be accessed via the internet or a company network, or both. In many cases a cloud service may allow access from a variety of end points such as a mobile phone, a PC or a tablet. Cloud services may be designed to be vendor agnostic, working equally well with Linux, Mac and PC platforms. They also can allow access from any internet connected location, allowing mobile workers to access business systems remotely as in Telecommuting, and extending the reach of business services provided by Outsourcing.
A user endpoint with minimal software requirements may submit a task for processing. The service provider may pool the processing power of multiple remote computers in "the cloud" to achieve the task, such as data warehousing of hundreds of terabytes, managing and synchronizing multiple documents online, or computationally intensive work. These tasks would normally be difficult, time consuming, or expensive for an individual user or a small company to accomplish. The outcome of the processing task is returned to the client over the network. In essence, the heavy lifting of a task is outsourced to an external entity with more resources and expertise.
The services - such as data storage and processing - and software are provided by the company hosting the remote computers. The clients are only responsible for having a simple computer with a connection to the Internet, or a company network, in order to make requests to and receive data from the cloud. Computation and storage is divided among the remote computers in order to handle large volumes of both, thus the client need not purchase expensive hardware to handle the task.
Technical description

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) provides a concise and specific definition:
Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction.
Cloud computing provides computation, software, data access, and storage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the system that delivers the services. Parallels to this concept can be drawn with the electricity grid, where end-users consume power without needing to understand the component devices or infrastructure required to provide the service.
Cloud computing describes a new supplement, consumption, and delivery model for IT services based on Internet protocols, and it typically involves provisioning of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources It is a byproduct and consequence of the ease-of-access to remote computing sites provided by the Internet This may take the form of web-based tools or applications that users can access and use through a web browser as if they were programs installed locally on their own computers.
Cloud computing providers deliver applications via the internet, which are accessed from a Web browser, while the business software and data are stored on servers at a remote location. In some cases, legacy applications (line of business applications which until now have been prevalent in thick client Windows computing) are delivered via a screen sharing technology such as Citrix XenApp, while the compute resources are consolidated at a remote data center location; in other cases entire business applications have been coded using web based technologies such as AJAX.
Most cloud computing infrastructures consist of services delivered through shared data-centers. The Cloud may appear as a single point of access for consumers' computing needs, notable examples include the iTunes Store, and the iPhone App Store. Commercial offerings may be required to meet service level agreements (SLAs), but specific terms are less often negotiated by smaller companies.
Overview

Comparisons
Cloud computing shares characteristics with:
Autonomic computing — "computer systems capable of self-management."
Client–server model – client–server computing refers broadly to any distributed application that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requesters (clients).
Grid computing — "a form of distributed computing and parallel computing, whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked, loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks."
Mainframe computer — powerful computers used mainly by large organizations for critical applications, typically bulk data processing such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning, and financial transaction processing.
Utility computing — the "packaging of computing resources, such as computation and storage, as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility, such as electricity."
Peer-to-peer – distributed architecture without the need for central coordination, with participants being at the same time both suppliers and consumers of resources (in contrast to the traditional client–server model).
Service-oriented computing – Cloud computing provides services related to computing while, in a reciprocal manner, service-oriented computing consists of the computing techniques that operate on software-as-a-service.
Characteristics
The key characteristic of cloud computing is that the computing is "in the cloud"; that is, the processing (and the related data) is not in a specified, known or static place(s). This is in contrast to a model in which the processing takes place in one or more specific servers that are known. All the other concepts mentioned are supplementary or complementary to this concept.
Architecture
Cloud architecture, the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing, typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over application programming interfaces, usually web services and 3-tier architecture. This resembles the Unix philosophy of having multiple programs each doing one thing well and working together over universal interfaces. Complexity is controlled and the resulting systems are more manageable than their monolithic counterparts.
The two most significant components of cloud computing architecture are known as the front end and the back end. The front end is the part seen by the client, i.e. the computer user. This includes the client’s network (or computer) and the applications used to access the cloud via a user interface such as a web browser. The back end of the cloud computing architecture is the ‘cloud’ itself, comprising various computers, servers and data storage devices.
History

The term "cloud" is used as a metaphor for the Internet, based on the cloud drawing used in the past to represent the telephone network, and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents.
Cloud computing is a natural evolution of the widespread adoption of virtualization, service-oriented architecture, autonomic and utility computing. Details are abstracted from end-users, who no longer have need for expertise in, or control over, the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them.
The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to the 1960s, when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organized as a public utility." Almost all the modern-day characteristics of cloud computing (elastic provision, provided as a utility, online, illusion of infinite supply), the comparison to the electricity industry and the use of public, private, government and community forms, were thoroughly explored in Douglas Parkhill's 1966 book, The Challenge of the Computer Utility.
The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunications companies, who until the 1990s primarily offered dedicated point-to-point data circuits, began offering Virtual Private Network (VPN) services with comparable quality of service but at a much lower cost. By switching traffic to balance utilization as they saw fit, they were able to utilize their overall network bandwidth more effectively. The cloud symbol was used to denote the demarcation point between that which was the responsibility of the provider, and that which was the responsibility of the user. Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure. The first scholarly use of the term “cloud computing” was in a 1997 lecture by Ramnath Chellappa.
After the dot-com bubble, Amazon played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernizing their data centers, which, like most computer networks, were using as little as 10% of their capacity at any one time, just to leave room for occasional spikes. Having found that the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements whereby small, fast-moving "two-pizza teams" could add new features faster and more easily, Amazon initiated a new product development effort to provide cloud computing to external customers, and launched Amazon Web Service (AWS) on a utility computing basis in 2006. The first exposure of the term Cloud Computing to public media is by GoogleEx CEO Eric Schmidt at SES San Jose 2006. It was reported in 2011 that Amazon has thousands of corporate customers, from large ones like Pfizer and Netflix to start-ups, Amongst them also include many corporations that live on Amazon's web services, including Foursquare, a location-based social networking site; Quora, a question-and-answer service; Reddit, a site for news-sharing and BigDoor, a maker of game tools for Web publishers.
In 2007, Google, IBM and a number of universities embarked on a large-scale cloud computing research project. In early 2008, Eucalyptus became the first open-source, AWS API-compatible platform for deploying private clouds. In early 2008, OpenNebula, enhanced in the RESERVOIR European Commission-funded project, became the first open-source software for deploying private and hybrid clouds, and for the federation of clouds. In the same year, efforts were focused on providing QoS guarantees (as required by real-time interactive applications) to cloud-based infrastructures, in the framework of the IRMOS European Commission-funded project. By mid-2008, Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud computing "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services, those who use IT services and those who sell them" and observed that "[o]rganisations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models" so that the "projected shift to cloud computing ... will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and significant reductions in other areas."
Key characteristics
Agility improves with users' ability to rapidly and inexpensively re-provision technological infrastructure resources.
Application Programming Interface (API) accessibility to software that enables machines to interact with cloud software in the same way the user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers. Cloud computing systems typically use REST-based APIs.
Cost is claimed to be greatly reduced and in a public cloud delivery model capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure. This ostensibly lowers barriers to entry, as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house).
Device and location independence enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e.g., PC, mobile phone). As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet, users can connect from anywhere.
Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing for:
Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate, electricity, etc.)
Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels)
Utilization and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilized.
Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used, which makes well designed cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery.
Scalability via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained, self-service basis near real-time, without users having to engineer for peak loads.
Performance is monitored, and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface.
Security could improve due to centralization of data, increased security-focused resources, etc., but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data, and the lack of security for stored kernels. Security is often as good as or better than under traditional systems, in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford. However, the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area or greater number of devices and in multi-tenant systems which are being shared by unrelated users. In addition, user access to security audit logs may be difficult or impossible. Private cloud installations are in part motivated by users' desire to retain control over the infrastructure and avoid losing control of information security.
Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier, because they do not need to be installed on each user's computer. They are easier to support and to improve, as the changes reach the clients instantly.
Layers

Once an Internet Protocol connection is established among several computers, it is possible to share services within any one of the following layers.
Client
Category:Cloud clients
A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software that relies on cloud computing for application delivery, or that is specifically designed for delivery of cloud services and that, in either case, is essentially useless without it. Examples include some computers, phones and other devices, operating systems and browsers
Application
Category:Cloud applications
Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet, eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support. People tend to use the terms "SaaS" and "cloud" interchangeably, when in fact they are two different things. Key characteristics include:
Network-based access to, and management of, commercially available (i.e., not custom) software
Activities that are managed from central locations rather than at each customer's site, enabling customers to access applications remotely via the Web
Application delivery that typically is closer to a one-to-many model (single instance, multi-tenant architecture) than to a one-to-one model, including architecture, pricing, partnering, and management characteristics
Centralized feature updating, which obviates the need for downloadable patches and upgrades
Platform
Category:Cloud platforms
Cloud platform services or "Platform as a Service (PaaS)" deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service, often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers.
Infrastructure
Category:Cloud infrastructure
Cloud infrastructure services, also known as "Infrastructure as a Service" (IaaS), delivers computer infrastructure – typically a platform virtualization environment – as a service. Rather than purchasing servers, software, data-center space or network equipment, clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service. Suppliers typically bill such services on a utility computing basis; the amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity. IaaS evolved from virtual private server offerings.
Cloud infrastructure often takes the form of a tier 3 data center with many tier 4 attributes, assembled from hundreds of virtual machines.
Server
The servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services, including multi-core processors, cloud-specific operating systems and combined offerings.
Deployment models
Public cloud
Public cloud or external cloud describes cloud computing in the traditional mainstream sense, whereby resources are dynamically provisioned on a fine-grained, self-service basis over the Internet, via web applications/web services, from an off-site third-party provider who bills on a fine-grained utility computing basis.
Community cloud
A community cloud may be established where several organizations have similar requirements and seek to share infrastructure so as to realize some of the benefits of cloud computing. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a single tenant). This option may offer a higher level of privacy, security and/or policy compliance. In addition it can be economically attractive as the resources (storage, workstations) utilized and shared in the community are already exploited and have reached their return of investment. Examples of community clouds include Google's "Gov Cloud".
Hybrid cloud and hybrid IT delivery
The main responsibility of the IT department is to deliver services to the business. With the proliferation of cloud computing (both private and public) and the fact that IT departments must also deliver services via traditional, in-house methods, the newest catch-phrase has become “hybrid cloud computing.” Hybrid cloud is also called hybrid delivery by the major vendors including HP, IBM, Oracle and VMware who offer technology to manage the complexity in managing the performance, security and privacy concerns that results from the mixed delivery methods of IT services.
A hybrid storage cloud uses a combination of public and private storage clouds. Hybrid storage clouds are often useful for archiving and backup functions, allowing local data to be replicated to a public cloud.
Another perspective on deploying a web application in the cloud is using Hybrid Web Hosting, where the hosting infrastructure is a mix between cloud hosting and managed dedicated servers – this is most commonly achieved as part of a web cluster in which some of the nodes are running on real physical hardware and some are running on cloud server instances.
Combined cloud
Two clouds that have been joined together are more correctly called a "combined cloud". A combined cloud environment consisting of multiple internal and/or external providers
"will be typical for most enterprises". By integrating multiple cloud services users may be able to ease the transition to public cloud services while avoiding issues such as PCI compliance.
Private cloud
Douglas Parkhill first described the concept of a "private computer utility" in his 1966 book The Challenge of the Computer Utility. The idea was based upon direct comparison with other industries (e.g. the electricity industry) and the extensive use of hybrid supply models to balance and mitigate risks.
"Private cloud" and "internal cloud" have been described as neologisms, but the concepts themselves pre-date the term cloud by 40 years. Even within modern utility industries, hybrid models still exist despite the formation of reasonably well-functioning markets and the ability to combine multiple providers.
Some vendors have used the terms to describe offerings that emulate cloud computing on private networks. These (typically virtualization automation) products offer the ability to host applications or virtual machines in a company's own set of hosts. These provide the benefits of utility computing – shared hardware costs, the ability to recover from failure, and the ability to scale up or down depending upon demand.
Private clouds have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy, build, and manage them" and thus do not benefit from lower up-front capital costs and less hands-on management, essentially " the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept". Enterprise IT organizations use their own private cloud(s) for mission critical and other operational systems to protect critical infrastructures. Therefore, for all intents and purposes, "private clouds" are not an implementation of cloud computing at all, but are in fact an implementation of a technology subset: the basic concept of virtualized computing.
Cloud engineering


Cloud engineering is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable, and interdisciplinary approach to the ideation, conceptualization, development, operation, and maintenance of cloud computing, as well as the study and applied research of the approach, i.e., the application of engineering to cloud. It is a maturing and evolving discipline to facilitate the adoption, strategization, operationalization, industrialization, standardization, productization, commoditization, and governance of cloud solutions, leading towards a cloud ecosystem. Cloud engineering is also known as cloud service engineering.
Cloud storage


Cloud storage is a model of networked computer data storage where data is stored on multiple virtual servers, generally hosted by third parties, rather than being hosted on dedicated servers. Hosting companies operate large data centers; and people who require their data to be hosted buy or lease storage capacity from them and use it for their storage needs. The data center operators, in the background, virtualize the resources according to the requirements of the customer and expose them as virtual servers, which the customers can themselves manage. Physically, the resource may span across multiple servers.
The Intercloud


The Intercloud is an interconnected global "cloud of clouds" and an extension of the Internet "network of networks" on which it is based. The term was first used in the context of cloud computing in 2007 when Kevin Kelly stated that "eventually we'll have the intercloud, the cloud of clouds. This Intercloud will have the dimensions of one machine comprising all servers and attendant cloudbooks on the planet.". It became popular in 2009 and has also been used to describe the datacenter of the future.
The Intercloud scenario is based on the key concept that each single cloud does not have infinite physical resources. If a cloud saturates the computational and storage resources of its virtualization infrastructure, it could not be able to satisfy further requests for service allocations sent from its clients. The Intercloud scenario aims to address such situation, and in theory, each cloud can use the computational and storage resources of the virtualization infrastructures of other clouds. Such form of pay-for-use may introduce new business opportunities among cloud providers if they manage to go beyond theoretical framework. Nevertheless, the Intercloud raises many more challenges than solutions concerning cloud federation, security, interoperability, quality of service, vendor's lock-ins, trust, legal issues, monitoring and billing.
The concept of a competitive utility computing market which combined many computer utilities together was originally described by Douglas Parkhill in his 1966 book, the "Challenge of the Computer Utility". This concept has been subsequently used many times over the last 40 years and is identical to the Intercloud.
Issues

Privacy
The cloud model has been criticized by privacy advocates for the greater ease in which the companies hosting the cloud services control, and thus, can monitor at will, lawfully or unlawfully, the communication and data stored between the user and the host company. Instances such as the secret NSA program, working with AT&T, and Verizon, which recorded over 10 million phone calls between American citizens, causes uncertainty among privacy advocates, and the greater powers it gives to telecommunication companies to monitor user activity. While there have been efforts (such as US-EU Safe Harbor) to "harmonize" the legal environment, providers such as Amazon still cater to major markets (typically the United States and the European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select "availability zones."
Compliance
In order to obtain compliance with regulations including FISMA, HIPAA and SOX in the United States, the Data Protection Directive in the EU and the credit card industry's PCI DSS, users may have to adopt community or hybrid deployment modes which are typically more expensive and may offer restricted benefits. This is how Google is able to "manage and meet additional government policy requirements beyond FISMA" and Rackspace Cloud are able to claim PCI compliance. Customers in the EU contracting with cloud providers established outside the EU/EEA have to adhere to the EU regulations on export of personal data.
Many providers also obtain SAS 70 Type II certification (e.g. Amazon, Salesforce.com, Google and Microsoft), but this has been criticised on the grounds that the hand-picked set of goals and standards determined by the auditor and the auditee are often not disclosed and can vary widely. Providers typically make this information available on request, under non-disclosure agreement.
Legal
In March 2007, Dell applied to trademark the term "cloud computing" (U.S. Trademark 77,139,082) in the United States. The "Notice of Allowance" the company received in July 2008 was canceled in August, resulting in a formal rejection of the trademark application less than a week later. Since 2007, the number of trademark filings covering cloud computing brands, goods and services has increased at an almost exponential rate. As companies sought to better position themselves for cloud computing branding and marketing efforts, cloud computing trademark filings increased by 483% between 2008 and 2009. In 2009, 116 cloud computing trademarks were filed, and trademark analysts predict that over 500 such marks could be filed during 2010.
Other legal cases may shape the use of cloud computing by the public sector. On October 29, 2010, Google filed a lawsuit against the U.S. Department of Interior, which opened up a bid for software that required that bidders use Microsoft's Business Productivity Online Suite. Google sued, calling the requirement "unduly restrictive of competition." Scholars have pointed out that, beginning in 2005, the prevalence of open standards and open source may have an impact on the way that public entities choose to select vendors.

Open source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing implementations. In November 2007, the Free Software Foundation released the Affero General Public License, a version of GPLv3 intended to close a perceived legal loophole associated with free software designed to be run over a network.
Open standards
See also: Category:Cloud standards
Most cloud providers expose APIs which are typically well-documented (often under a Creative Commons license) but also unique to their implementation and thus not interoperable. Some vendors have adopted others' APIs and there are a number of open standards under development, including the OGF's Open Cloud Computing Interface. The Open Cloud Consortium (OCC) is working to develop consensus on early cloud computing standards and practices.

 Cloud computing security
The relative security of cloud computing services is a contentious issue which may be delaying its adoption. Issues barring the adoption of cloud computing are due in large part to the private and public sectors unease surrounding the external management of security based services. It is the very nature of cloud computing based services, private or public, that promote external management of provided services. This delivers great incentive amongst cloud computing service providers in producing a priority in building and maintaining strong management of secure services.
Organizations have been formed in order to provide standards for a better future in cloud computing services. One organization in particular, the Cloud Security Alliance is a non-profit organization formed to promote the use of best practices for providing security assurance within cloud computing.
Availability and performance
In addition to concerns about security, businesses are also worried about acceptable levels of availability and performance of applications hosted in the cloud.
There are also concerns about a cloud provider shutting down for financial or legal reasons, which has happened in a number of cases.
Sustainability and siting
Although cloud computing is often assumed to be a form of "green computing", there is as of yet no published study to substantiate this assumption. Siting the servers affects the environmental effects of cloud computing. In areas where climate favors natural cooling and renewable electricity is readily available, the environmental effects will be more moderate. Thus countries with favorable conditions, such as Finland, Sweden and Switzerland, are trying to attract cloud computing data centers.
SmartBay, marine research infrastructure of sensors and computational technology, is being developed using cloud computing, an emerging approach to shared infrastructure in which large pools of systems are linked together to provide IT services.
Research

A number of universities, vendors and government organizations are investing in research around the topic of cloud computing. Academic institutions include University of Melbourne (Australia), Georgia Tech, Yale, Wayne State, Virginia Tech, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Carnegie Mellon, MIT, Indiana University, University of Massachusetts, University of Maryland, IIT Bombay, North Carolina State University, Purdue University, University of California, University of Washington, University of Virginia, University of Utah, University of Minnesota, among others.
Joint government, academic and vendor collaborative research projects include the IBM/Google Academic Cloud Computing Initiative (ACCI). In October 2007 IBM and Google announced the multi- university project designed to enhance students' technical knowledge to address the challenges of cloud computing. In April 2009, the National Science Foundation joined the ACCI and awarded approximately million in grants to 14 academic institutions.
In July 2008, HP, Intel Corporation and Yahoo! announced the creation of a global, multi-data center, open source test bed, called Open Cirrus, designed to encourage research into all aspects of cloud computing, service and data center management. Open Cirrus partners include the NSF, the University of Illinois (UIUC), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, the Infocomm Development Authority (IDA) of Singapore, the Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) in Korea, the Malaysian Institute for Microelectronic Systems(MIMOS), and the Institute for System Programming at the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISPRAS). In Sept. 2010, more researchers joined the HP/Intel/Yahoo Open Cirrus project for cloud computing research. The new researchers are China Mobile Research Institute (CMRI), Spain's Supercomputing Center of Galicia (CESGA by its Spanish acronym), Georgia Tech's Center for Experimental Research in Computer Systems (CERCS) and China Telecom.
In July 2010, HP Labs India announced a new cloud-based technology designed to simplify taking content and making it mobile-enabled, even from low-end devices. Called SiteonMobile, the new technology is designed for emerging markets where people are more likely to access the internet via mobile phones rather than computers. In November 2010, HP formally opened its Government Cloud Theatre, located at the HP Labs site in Bristol, England. The demonstration facility highlights high-security, highly flexible cloud computing based on intellectual property developed at HP Labs. The aim of the facility is to lessen fears about the security of the cloud. HP Labs Bristol is HP’s second-largest central research location and currently is responsible for researching cloud computing and security.
The IEEE Technical Committee on Services Computing in IEEE Computer Society sponsors the IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing (CLOUD). CLOUD 2010 was held on July 5–10, 2010 in Miami, Florida
On March 23, 2011, Google, Microsoft, HP, Yahoo, Verizon, Deutsche Telekom and 17 other companies formed a nonprofit organization called Open Networking Foundation, focused on providing support for a new cloud initiative called Software-Defined Networking. The initiative is meant to speed innovation through simple software changes in telecommunications networks, wireless networks, data centers and other networking areas.
Criticism of the term

Some have come to criticize the term as being either too unspecific or even misleading. CEO Larry Ellison of Oracle Corporation asserts that cloud computing is "everything that we already do", claiming that the company could simply "change the wording on some of our ads" to deploy their cloud-based services. Forrester Research VP Frank Gillett questions the very nature of and motivation behind the push for cloud computing, describing what he calls "cloud washing"—companies simply relabeling their products as "cloud computing", resulting in mere marketing innovation instead of "real" innovation. GNU's Richard Stallman insists that the industry will only use the model to deliver services at ever increasing rates over proprietary systems, otherwise likening it to a "marketing hype campaign".

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