sexta-feira, 18 de fevereiro de 2011

Nikola Tesla. Extremely low frequency (ELF).

Nikola Tesla. 1857-1943

Without whose work and discoveries we would not have Electricity as we know it today. While Michael Faraday discovered in 1831 that moving a magnet around a wire created an electric current, this discovery led on to many scientific discoveries which led to the direct current generator being invented along with many prototypes of the electric lamp, the Englishman Swan probably credited with the first practical working electric lamp in 1879 and a young Nikola Tesla who saw that Direct Current Electricity was not only wasteful but had severe limitations.
Edison Patented his electric lamp in 1880 which was based not only on the lamp but a direct current power distribution system to power it.

What people do not realise is that while Thomas Edison is called the "Father of Electricity", and did indeed patent the first commercial electric lamp; his system was based on Direct Current..As such the idea of Alternating current was frowned upon by Edison. He feared that; correctly; his system would be "taken over" by Alternating Current. Edison tried to discredit Tesla  -Edison was a very aggressive, posturing, public image person while Tesla was a quiet, withdrawing, sensitive person. Two completely different people.

However Tesla had truth on his side; as George Westinghouse once said to him. Alternating Current was 100 per cent more efficient than Direct Current; and could travel extremely long distances over wires; while Direct Current could only travel a few Kilometers. An Alternator operating at full load is very very efficient as far as input to output. As Tesla said "it is in harmony with nature".

Teslas's life was as amazing as his discoveries. Like Faraday; Tesla knew that Electricity and Magnetism were unique forces in Nature. They make up one of the four forces that are part of the physical world we live in; and everything in it. Both men knew that Gravity; one of the other of the four forces; was also connected to Electricity and Magnetism.

Tesla's Alternating current "vision" came to him as he was in a public park and a poem from the German poet Faust about the dying of the day; and a new day being born across the world at the same time was being read. His immediate thoughts were of a spinning generator which reversed the poles. (an Alternator). He realised that this would provide unlimited power. He started writing on the ground in front of him with a stick; the now well known sine wave; used to signify 

Alternating Current.

Tesla was very sensitive to all the senses. He could hear a clock ticking three rooms away. He had "visions" as he put it "sudden bursts of energy". Ordinary people thought him strange; he refused to shake hands with anyone as he put it - it -"disturbed his magnetic field". He had a fetish for washing his hands 30 or 40 times a day; could not stand fruit, and talked about outer space and possible life out there; which in the 1890's was considered as the sign of madness.

Tesla knew that the world is full of energy; and natural energy which is now called ELF or extra-low-frequency energy; is what he played around with. This is energy which exists as the Earth is like a giant generator in space; and properly harnessed this could provide us all with unlimited energy for our needs without needing to burn coal or use nuclear fission to produce electricity. Tesla looked forward to the present day where his Alternating Current power stations would be powered by 

ELF technology.

Tesla's energy was based not on Electromagnetic but on a waveform called Scalar or Longitudinal.It's what the scientific community calls the "zero point energy" of the vacuum or the Scalar value of zero. It's what the Occult calls the "ether". Two intersecting Scalar waves form an Electromagnetic wave.

Tesla, with the financial backing of famous financier J.P. Morgan, built a Transmission tower  which housed a resonating tesla coil. It was shaped like a pyramid and it's intention was to transmit energy around the world, from a single tower. Morgan provided the finance as Tesla had successfully developed Alternating Current, and with the backing of Morgan had built the world's first Alternating Current Power station at Niagara Falls, in the U.S.A. Morgan was receptive to Tesla and thought that Tesla was onto something, having been impressed with Tesla's Alternating Current Power station. HOWEVER when Morgan found out that Tesla wanted to transmit FREE energy from the tower it was literally burnt to the ground, and Morgan would have nothing more to do with it.

Shortly afterwards Tesla's lab was burnt to the ground, while Tesla was away, asleep in his home.In Teslas' time not much was known about the Ionosphere. We now know that this, along with the Earth form a Sphere-in-a-sphere capacitor fed by the solar winds, which are driven by the Van Allen belts which act as the driving current with the molten inner earth acting as the induced current. The atmosphere acts as a leaky capacitor. The Earth and Ionosphere are about 55 Kilometers apart. In short the Earth is like a giant generator in space.Tesla once said that we are like people in a boat, in a fresh water river, who are dying of thirst because we do not know how to scoop up the water from the sides of the boat.Tesla did not know that Scalar waves only became pronounced at extremely low frequencies but that is the basis of ELF technology today.Unfortunately this ELF energy has two major problems. Firstly it is Free. How can you charge for an energy which is all around us; all over the world ?.

And also more important; in the wrong hands it could destroy our planet. Used correctly it would be a boom for humanity; but would be more dangerous than letting off all the atomic bombs at once. It's literally a double edged sword or 

Pandora's Box.

Both the Russians and the Americans have used Tesla'a ELF technology. Both sides have realised it's awesome capabilities. Tesla said that his system (see exmouth) would abolish war as no side would be able to launch a missile attack as a defence "shield" would stop any missile. Unfortunately the very same "shield" could destroy the planet by destabilising the earth's magnetic field; destroy completely the ozone layer; or any one of a number of major disasters including causing the planet to veer off course and collide with another planet. 

This might sound like complete rubbish; but in August 1975 the Russians and Americans signed a draft agreement in Geneva at the International Disarmament Conference for the banning of 19 ELF weapons which could cause such catastrophes as Landslides; earthquakes; avalanches; volcanoes; tidal waves; as well as harnessing lightning bolts; guiding hurricanes to specific targets; melting the ice caps; changing the direction of rivers; generating Rain; hail; fog; snow; selectively destabilising the earth's magnetic field; and selectively destroying parts of the Ozone layer. US President Ford told the media that the US and USSR did not have these weapons but were signing the treaty "just in case".

This followed a 10 year tense standoff after the Nuclear Submarine US Thresher "disappeared" while it was on patrol, in April 1963. The Thresher was at the time the most advanced U.S. Submarine - It was awesome as far as military size. - Like the Titanic - Unsinkable. No sign of the submarine or it's crew or any debris have ever been found. The USSR was rumoured to have used a Tesla device to remotely destroy the craft. This was after the backdown from the 1962 Cuban Missile crisis. The day after the Thresher disappeared the USSR successfully deployed a Tesla Device to transmit an explosion to an underground location 100 miles north of Puerto Rico. The USSR did this to prove a point to the US.
But It was electrical pioneers like Michael Faraday who discovered the principle of electro-magnetism, in 1831 and Nikola Tesla who discovered Alternating Current in the later 1800s that were the real forces behind the scenes.

Tesla has somehow been written out of the history books but invented among other things the Fluorescent light, Robotics, the car coil, and ultra high speed electrical switches. Alternating Current Alternators. and Alternating current generation/transmission. His "Tesla coil" is used today in labs around the world, and is used for things like detecting leaks in vacuum apparatus. In 1899, two years before Marconi sent radio across the Atlantic , Tesla had built remote radio-controlled toy boats. Marconi worked for Tesla in Teslas own lab. 

Tesla was obsessed with energy as a form of power, while Marconi only wanted to explore the prospect of transmitting energy as a form of communication. The worlds first Alternating Current power station was built in the late 1800's at Niagara Falls in the U.S. by Tesla with the backing of George Westinghouse and J.P. Morgan, the famous financier. Tesla made a rambling speech at the opening of the plant about how it should have been built earlier and about missed opportunities and left the audience thinking that the man was crazy. 

Tesla was a very unique person. Edison was furious ( over his D.C. power being discredited) and began a scare campaign and rumour mill to discredit Tesla and destroy Westinghouse. Alternating Current meant the end of Edisons' power distribution system which was based on Direct Current. Only Teslas bailing out Westinghouse saved him, but as a result Tesla was completely broke, and died alone, completely disillusioned, in a hotel room in New York during the second world war, in 1943.

A great deal of speculation has occurred about the last years of Teslas' life. It was known that Tesla worked on the infamous Philadelphia Experiment that the US Navy conducted in the very early 1940's . This was designed to make navy boats invisible to radar (as part of the war effort) - the Germans had a magnetic mine that was causing a lot of problems for the allies..The unintentional result was the boat actually became invisible to the eye..the navy saw immense possibilities in this and conducted more tests, but placed personal on board instead of just an empty ship..

Tesla was gravely concerned when things went wrong (with the people on board) - It is one thing to transport an object through time and a completely different thing to transport a person..."time locks" are constant for objects but differ from person to person depending on date of birth, (etc). An individual must be separately configured to time travel. There is no fixed setting for all people. Tesla altered the settings on the equipment before walking out on the project..leaving a lot of high ranking people VERY upset...The scientist Newman tried to re-do the test, but it failed. The navy went on with the tests without Tesla, but it was difficult for them...(Many disasters happened..but the tests went on.) Tesla did not live much longer after that...There have been all sorts of statements made. One can only guess about what really happened.

Extremely low frequency (ELF) is a term used to describe radiation frequencies from 3 to 30 Hz. In atmosphere science, an alternative definition is usually given, from 3 Hz to 3 kHz. In the related magnetosphere science, the lower frequency electromagnetic oscillations (pulsations occurring below ~3 Hz) are considered to lie in the ULF range, which is thus also defined differently from the ITU Radio Bands.

ELF is a subradio frequency. 

Some medical peer-reviewed journals refer to ELF in the context of "extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MF)" with frequencies of 50 Hz and 50–80 Hz. United States Government agencies, such as NASA, describe ELF as non-ionizing radiation with frequencies between 0 and 300 Hz. The World Health Organization (WHO) have used ELF to refer to the concept of "extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields (EMF)" and have also referred to "ELF electric and magnetic fields in the frequency range >0 to 100,000 Hz (100 kHz)." The WHO also stated that at frequencies between 0 and 300 Hz, "the wavelengths in air are very long (6000 km at 50 Hz and 5000 km at 60 Hz), and, in practical situations, the electric and magnetic fields act independently of one another and are measured separately."

The United States Navy utilized extremely low frequencies (ELFs) as radio band and radio communications. The Submarine Integrated Antena System (SIAS) was a research and development effort to communicate with submerged submarines. The Soviet/Russian Navy also utilized ELFs for submarine communications system, ZEVS.

Because of the electrical conductivity of seawater, submarines are shielded from most electromagnetic communications. Signals in the ELF frequency range, however, can penetrate much deeper. Two factors limit the usefulness of ELF communications channels: the low data transmission rate of a few characters per minute and, to a lesser extent, the one-way nature due to the impracticality of installing[dubious – discuss] a transmitter of the required size on a submarine (transmitters need to be of exceptional size for the users to achieve successful communication). Generally, ELF signals were used to order a submarine to rise to a shallow depth where it could receive some other form of communication.

One of the difficulties posed when broadcasting in the ELF frequency range is antenna size. This is because the antenna must be at least a substantial fraction of the size (in at least one dimension) of the wavelength of the frequency of the EM waves. Simply put, a 1 Hz (cycle per second) signal would have a wavelength equal to the distance EM waves travel through a given medium in 1 second. For ELF, this is very slightly slower than the speed of light in a vacuum. As used in military applications, the wavelength is ~299,792 km(~187,370 mi) per second divided by 50–85 Hz, which equals around 3,450 to 5,996 km (2,140 to 3,726 mi) long; by comparison, Earth's diameter is around 12,735 km (7,913 mi). Because of this huge size requirement and, to transmit internationally using ELF frequencies, the earth itself must be used as an antenna, with extremely long leads going into the ground. Various other means are taken to construct radio stations with substantially smaller sizes, such as electrical lengthening.

The US maintained two sites, in the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, Wisconsin and the Escanaba River State Forest, Michigan (originally named Project Sanguine, then downsized and rechristened Project ELF prior to construction), until they were dismantled, beginning in late September 2004. Both sites used long power lines, so-called ground dipoles, as leads. These leads were in multiple strands ranging from 22.5 to 45 kilometres (14.0 to 28 mi) long. Because of the inefficiency of this method, considerable amounts of electrical power were required to operate the system.

There have been some concerns over the possible ecological impact of ELF signals. In 1984 a federal judge halted construction requiring more environmental and health studies. This judgment was overruled by a federal appeals court on the basis that the US Navy claimed to have spent over 25 million dollars studying the effects of the electromagnetic fields with results indicating that they were similar to the effect produced by standard power distribution lines. The judgment was not accepted by everyone and during the time ELF was in use, some Wisconsin politicians such as Senators Herb Kohl, Russ Feingold and Congressman Dave 

Obey called for its closure. Similar concerns have in the past been raised about electromagnetic radiation and health.
Transmitters in the 20 Hz range are also found in pipeline inspection gauges, also known as "PIGs".

Some radio hams record ELF (or even lower) signals from very large homemade antennas, and play them back at higher speeds to catch natural fluctuations in the Earth's electromagnetic field. Increasing the playback increases the pitch, so that it is brought into the audio frequency range.

Naturally occurring ELF waves are present on Earth, resonating in the region between ionosphere and surface. They are initiated by lightning strikes that make electrons in the atmosphere oscillate. Though VLF signals were predominantly generated from lightning discharges, it was found that an observable ELF component (slow tail) followed the VLF component in almost all cases. The fundamental mode of the Earth-ionosphere cavity has the wavelength equal to the circumference of the Earth, which gives a resonance frequency of 7.8 Hz. This frequency, and higher resonance modes of 14, 20, 26 and 32 Hz appear as peaks in the ELF spectrum and are called Schumann resonance.

They have also been tentatively identified on Saturn's moon Titan. Titan's surface is thought to be a poor reflector of ELF waves, so the waves may instead be reflecting off the liquid-ice boundary of a subsurface ocean of water and ammonia, the existence of which is predicted by some theoretical models. Titan's ionosphere is also more complex than Earth's, with the main ionosphere at an altitude of 1,200 km (750 mi) but with an additional layer of charged particles at 63 km (39 mi). This splits Titan's atmosphere to some extent[weasel words] into two separate resonating chambers. The source of natural ELF waves on Titan is unclear as there doesn't appear to be extensive lightning activity.

Finally, huge ELF radiation power outputs of 100,000 times the Sun's output in visible light may be radiated by magnetars. The pulsar in the Crab nebula radiates powers of this order at the frequency 30 hertz . Radiation of this frequency is below the plasma frequency of the interstellar medium, thus this medium is opaque to it, and it cannot be observed from Earth.In electromagnetic therapy and electromagnetic radiation and health research, electromagnetic spectrum frequencies between 0 and 100 hertz are considered extremely-low-frequency fields. Since the late 1970s, questions have been raised whether exposure to ELF electric and magnetic fields (EMF) within this range of frequencies produces adverse health consequences. 

In October 2005, WHO convened a Task Group of scientific experts to assess any risks to health that might exist from "exposure to ELF electric and magnetic fields in the frequency range >0 to 100,000 Hz (100 kHz)." Research has shown that ELF electrical and magnetic fields at a high-level short-term exposure have a negative impact on health (ICNIRP, 2003). However, in regards to recognized ELF safety standards, the "Health effects related to short-term, high-level exposure have been established and form the basis of two international exposure limit guidelines (ICNIRP, 1998; IEEE, 2002).

 At present, these bodies consider the scientific evidence related to possible health effects from long-term, low-level exposure to ELF fields insufficient to justify lowering these quantitative exposure limits." A common source of ELF fields in the United States is 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields from high-voltage electric power transmission lines and secondary distribution lines, such as those found in residential neighbourhoods. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has evaluated the scientific data and has classified ELF magnetic fields as being "possibly carcinogenic" or, in other words, that there is some evidence that EMFs may contribute to an increased risk of cancer to humans or animals. Epidemiological studies suggest a possible association between long term occupational exposure to ELF and Alzheimer's disease.

Um comentário:

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